Sandpaper-gate: Ethical Organizational Culture within a National Sport Governing Body.

Physical education

Sandpaper-gate: Ethical Organizational Culture within a National Sport Governing Body.

Integrity Unit in Australia

The Cricket Australia team has had a long history in tournaments working under the mantra, work hard, and fair play. It was an interesting twist of events when it was discovered through CCTV footage of two players pressing sandpaper into the ball in the 2018 tournament in South Africa. Still, the cricket federation in Australia was in existence since 2013 mainly to address emerging issues like lack of integrity in the Sport.

             The Integrity Unit in Australia was mainly established to cushion the Cricket sport from various irregularities such as doping, match-fixing, and any other behavior that would be detrimental to the competitors as well as to Cricket as a Sport.  Ideally, the Integrity Unit is responsible for the oversight of the anti-corruption program, anti-doping and illicit substance program, player conduct issues, as well as the salary cap and player contracting issues. Through liaison with international agencies such as International Cricket Council (ICC) to ensure that all the codes of practices are adhered to. Also, the Integrity unit is in charge of all the disciplinary measures concerning local issues in cricket.  The integrity Unit upholds the integrity culture. Through the integrity culture, most of the incidents that could happen in Australia are prevented.  It helps in the delivery of the best practice educational programs through an association with the CAs education team as well as the Australian Cricketer’s Educational program. Thus, the Integrity Unit in Australia helps in the holistic development of the cricket team, through correct behavior and compliance with the international regulatory bodies.

Good Ethical Practices in Sports

According to Vargas-Mendoza et al (2018), the bioethics is one of the key concepts of good ethical practices in sports.  Bioethics is an application of science in the conduct of the morality in the behavior of the human beings in the proponents of the values and moral principles. As such, Vargas-Mendoza et al (2018) states that  sports is coined as an activity that engages human beings and thus should abide to the principle of good and bad. The sporting activities should ethically adhere to the set down rules that define what should or should not be done in the course of the gaming activities.  Bioethics within the scientific and technical capabilities dictates on the practices of medical and biological sciences and their repercussions in the social world both now and in the future (Vargas-Mendoza, et al, 2018). Therefore sporting activities are embedded in the scientific and technical discourses that can impact the future either positively or negatively.

Strategy for Bioethics

             The health of the sportspersons in the game is paramount. As such, the sporting health person should ensure that the various athletes or players are mentally and physically fit to contest in any tournament. Keeping fit entails a myriad of activities from healthy dietary intakes to consistency in exercising and relaxing the mind through shutting out any bit of external pressure (Vargas-Mendoza et al, 2018). The ethical strategy in the sporting activity also restrains the individual persons from undertaking any activity that may be deemed wrong. For instance, Vargas-Mendoza et al, (2018) posits that it is illegal for a sportsperson to get pharmaceutical aids that would help in the improvement of the practice session as well as in the overall performance in the game.

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            Doping has been one of the key challenges in sporting activities.  Thus, WADA, an anti-doping agency was founded in 1998, after the discovery of doping in some cyclists (Vargas-Mendoza et al, 2018).  The International Olympic Committee, which founded WADA, is legally mandated to conduct scientific investigations, conducting education programs, detection of doping, and development of doping codes to be used by various agencies.  The WADA code of conduct distinctly identifies the illegal substances that are prohibited and ensuring that athletes compete in a free and fair environment.   Bioethics helps various athletes in the dietary supplements that they must take and the impact of the supplements in general bodily activities.

Potential Outcomes of Bioethics

             The main outcome of the Bioethics advocacy is in helping the various sportsperson in getting it right as long as the various sporting activities are concerned.  It helps the athletes in overcoming the will to win through various activities. The ability to do right is driven by the social repercussions such as doping and being banned from participation in the sporting activities.  Also, Bio-ethics helps in the holistic development of the sportsperson. Through liaison between the physicians and the different sportsperson, the physical, emotional and psychological health of the various players is maintained.   The establishment of things that should not be done enables the various stakeholders to focus on only the positive proponents in life undertaking.

Fair play

            Fair play entails the ability of different sportspersons to conform to the set down rules, respect the officials and respect the fellow players (Gülfem, 2014). Mihaela et al (2013) describes Fair play as the expression of noble attitude towards oneself as well as towards others in the sporting world.  Research studies indicate a positive correlation between the sporting fair play as well as the fair play in the real world (Mihaela et al, 2013). As such, there is need for insisting on the Fair play practices as a means of shaping the societal behavioral characteristics. The high level of morality embedded in the sporting activities has led to the practice of fair play in areas beyond the sporting activities. Mihaela et al(2013) states that the  circumvention  of the fair play entails avoiding of all the rules entailing the fair play in the organization.  The coining of the term fair play meets both the behavioral and the physic pattern of existence. As such, Mihaela et al (2013) describes fair play as an activity that can be conducted at any time within any measures of performance.

Strategies for Fair play

             Fair play as a key component in the development of the sportsperson ship is embedded in adherence to rules as well as the respect of individual persons as well as the team mates. Gülfem (2014) states that there are distinct components that outline whether one is a sportsperson or not. To begin with, the person should be committed to participation in the sport. As such, commitment should be evidenced from timely participation in the gaming activities to the strict attendance to the competitions. Secondly, the concern and respect for the social convections in sports.  Thirdly, the sportsperson ship entails the concern and respect to rules and officials. Gülfem (2014) states that the fair play concerns sticking to the rules of the game and ensuring that all the officials’ decisions are respected.  Sticking to the rules includes avoiding the things that are restricted in gaming such as doping. The fifth strategy concerning fair play embedded in the spirit of sportsperson ship entails the negative attitude towards the participation in the sporting activities (Gülfem, 2014). As such, the sports person should always have a positive attitude while participating in the sporting activities.

Potential Outcomes of Fair play

             Fair play impacts on the behavior of the sportsperson during games and in the society. As such, Fair play could be the antidote for the poor behavior of the sporting persons within the community and advocacy for general well behavior in the community.  Fair play could result in fair games where every participant is on an equal platform. Through the elimination of negative behavior such as doping, the integrity of the various sporting activities is upheld. Also, the fair play helps in molding of the next generation of sportsperson (Gulfem, 2014).  Athletes who adhere to fair play rules raise future champions who will abide by the rules. Lastly, Fair play enhances the duration a sports person lasts in the gaming competition. As a lack of adherence to rules may lead to banning from games, the adherence to the rules might led to an extended enjoyment of one’s membership in the game.


             Sports Integrity is the sum total of the values and commitment that foster the confidence that the community has on the particular sports.  Ethical integrity encompasses the displayed behavior by the players and officials on the ground as well as during various team activities that is deemed as honest and fair (Archer, 2016).  During a game or a tournament, the integrity can be compromised as a result of the breaking of the rules that govern the game, failure of athletes to play in the spirit of the game, the manifestation of corrupt activities as well as the comprising of the identity of the game due to the commercialization of the game. Archer, (2016) connote that the integrity in sports entail the equity among the distinct players. Despite the disparities that exist between distinct individuals that make others more privileged than the rest in the conduct of sports, there is still much that is required of the sports person like ensuring that the performance enhancing agents are not used in the tournaments.

Strategies for Integrity

              Archer (2016) posits that the  sporting integrity as a virtue can be possessed by individual persons, sporting institutions or linked to the  sport itself. Gardiner,  Parry, and Robinson, (2016) posits that the integrity of the sport itself is  comprised of the activities that a community deem as core to the activities of the sport as well as the values that govern the sporting exercise such as the justice, excellence, competition and  respect.  The considerations of moral equity in the sport entails that all the sportspersons are held in the same regard and respect.  Thus, Gardiner, Parry, and Robinson, (2016) states the sporting integrity on the aspect of the sport itself dis conducted on the basis of how the aspects of self in the organization are conducted.

             Personal integrity is a strategy that seeks for the representation of the best form of integrity in sporting exercises for the coaches, sports persons, contestants, or the referee. Gardiner, Parry, and Robinson, (2016) connote that personal integrity entails the ability that the distinct sportsperson have on the preservation of their character amidst the presentation of their commitment as accurately and reliable.  Lack of integrity is described in the cases involving doping, match-fixing, cheating and deception that compromises on the values that one has represented in the game. Gardiner,  Parry, and Robinson, (2016) states that professional integrity is required in the conduct of games lack of which one may be banned from participation in the game.

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             Organizational integrity may emanate from a single group representing one of the sporting activities or a federation such as ICC representing groups of people in the game.  Gardiner, Parry, and Robinson (2016), outlines that the major form of integrity compromises, emanates from the involvement of the sporting associations in the corruption cases. Sporting associations should stick to the central sport of the competitive games and ensure that the moral principles that govern the participations in the games are upheld.

            Gardiner, Parry, and Robinson, (2016) additionally points out the strategy of the procedural integrity with a focus on the sporting events.  It involves the trustworthiness of the sporting event. As such, it entails the personal integrity of all the persons involved in the sport as well as the behavior that distinguishes the sport as having occurred in morality grounds.

Possible Outcomes of Integrity

                        Integrity, in its distinct forms, personal, institutional, procedural and sporting integrity is a vital component of the sporting organizations. It enables the various players to conduct themselves in fairness and equity and advocates for the true spirit of the game. Integrity fosters the true identity of the game as individual persons strive to abide by the rules while the games are governed in a free and fair manner. Integrity roots out unfair practices that may lead to biasness in the winning team or person such as doping and corrupt dealings in the organization.

 Strategies for Cricket Australia


            Different ethical Strategies can be applicable to the Cricket Australia Team and ensure that it becomes a reputable team of distinct players. To begin with the cricket team in Australia can build up a good ethical practice through maintaining integrity in all of its undertakings. Integrity in sports connotes the aspect of the behaviors and values that are displayed by either the sporting person’s, sport’s officials, the sport itself or the sporting association.  The sporting association, in Australia can foster the integrity through ensuring that the competitiveness in games are upheld and the rules that govern the Cricket game is adhered to the end (Gardiner,  Parry, and Robinson, 2016).  In such a manner, the Cricket association will root out practices that may compromise the entire behavior of the officials and players during the sporting activities.

             In building up sporting integrity, procedural integrity amongst the sports event is vital. Thus, the Cricket Australia can implement policies that make cricket a trustworthy game in the local and international spheres (Gardiner, Parry, and Robinson, 2016). The Cricket Australia should ensure that all the persons engaged in the sporting activities display moral behaviors as well as upheld by the distinct players.

            Personal Integrity is vital in ensuring that the various players in the Cricket games adhere to the rules and display commitment to the games. Cricket Australia can build up aspects of personal integrity among the players through an advocacy that fosters on equality of all the players through avoiding performance enhancing supplements (doping). It should ensure that there are no single cases cheating or deception among the players. Personal integrity will develop as the individual players will be encouraged to exhibit aspects of their personality that is distinctly accurate and reliable.

             Cricket Australia, as a governing body should ensure that the various components of integrity of an association are maintained. As such, Gardiner,  Parry, and Robinson, (2016) advocates for sporting association integrity to be built through the commitment of the teams internal goods as well as excellence in the conduct of its affairs. Practices such as corruption in the conduct of the various elements of the game should be totally eliminated.

Bioethics Strategy

             Bioethics connotes the connection of human beings and the ethical practices that govern whether the action undertaken by an individual person falls within the aspects of good or bad. Cricket Australia should build up the Bioethics through an illustration of what should be done and what should not be done (Vargas-Mendoza et al, 2018). The achievement of the Bioethics should be through the consistency in the maintenance of rules the performance of individual persons, the performance of teams, and rules governing teams’ performance in the local and the international sphere.

             In the pursuit of Bioethics the organization should look into the health of the different players to ensure that they are psychologically, physically, and mentally stable to participate in all kinds of Cricket activities. As (Vargas-Mendoza et al, 2018), posits it is vital that the professionals in the medical field be incorporated in the process of building the health component of the bioethics.  The constant checking of the players’ health should have an allowance for recovery in case of an injury. It is detrimental for the health of a player to receive pressure from the Cricket Australia to participate in a sporting activity prior to full recovery.

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             Cricket Australia can build up bioethics through ensuring that the players do not use performance enhancement techniques in conducting their various activities. For instance, doping has emerged as a critical issue in the sports world. The endeavor to win and declaration as the best team has driven most sportspersons to resort to doping. Cricket Australia can use medical techniques to frequently check on the players to filter out any players that may have engaged in doping practices.  Also, Cricket Australia can enact strict rules such as banning from the game for any individuals found to have used performance enhancement supplements. The Cricket Australia can borrow from the WADA code of practices and unapproved substances within the organization.  Additionally, the Cricket Australia can encourage the players to have healthy diet practices and take supplements to ensure that their bodies remain strong and fit.

Strategy of Fair Play

             Fair Play constitutes of the ability of the distinct sports person to follow the set down rules and abide within the constraints of the game. As Archer, (2016) illustrates, Fair play ensures equity in sporting activities and equity of the distinct players within the organization. Cricket Australia should foster fair play as it reflects not only on the behavior of the different players on the pitch but as well as the overall behavior of a person in the society.   Cricket Australia should foster Fair play amongst the distinct members through ensuring that the various personalities stick to the training schedules. The timely arrival of the participants for both the training sessions as well as for the overall games should be an indicator of the players’ commitment to abiding by the rules.

            Cricket Australia should foster fair play through ensuring the different team players respect the rules set for the games as well as respect the officials of the game. As such the team players will play in the spirit of sportsmanship and avoiding any foul or aggressive tactics during the games. Additionally fair play, enacting will   make the player respect the decision taken by the team of officials during and after games.

             The enactment of the fair play strategy shall entail the attitude of the players towards the game. As such, Cricket Australia should ensure that the players always have the positive attitude while participating in the various games. Positive attitude will build fair play as it will guide the players in their relationship with each other as well as in the relationship with the team officials. Cases of violence shall be minimal in the event that all the participants adhere to the rules and seek out the best during practice sessions as well as during the games.


            Cricket Australia should strive to ensure that all the players in the various teams are compete enough to deliver high performance during gaming activities. Competence in the sporting activity may connote the ability of the players to perform in distinct circumstances in addition to the flexibility in dealing with the people from multicultural backgrounds (Fransen et al, 2018).  Competence is an ethical trait that may seem hard to achieve as one cannot pinpoint on individual players and esteem them competent on the basis of a single game.

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            Cricket Australia should come up with recruitment model that would ensure that only the competent players get into the game. The program should run for more than three months with intercultural component included therein. Afterwards, the best players can be handpicked into the game. Additionally, Cricket Australia should bring forth clarity in set of rules governing cricket games. The rules should outline what players should do and what should not be done. For instance, the recent case of interference of the sporting persons with the ball in South Africa should have featured in a list of things not be done. Doping should also be restricted as it may feign the  true ability of the sportsperson regarding the participation in the games.

            In conclusion, the Cricket Australia can still do much in reviving the glory of the cricket team and ensuring that all the team players abide by the rules of the international cricket federation. As such, the ethical considerations are a stairway to the achievement of the status befitting the sportsmanship. The main ethical strategies relates to the components of the bioethics, fair play, integrity and competence. The building up of the infrastructure such as the development of the rules to guide the performance of the players is critical. Cricket Australia should develop clear rules in banning of any individual or teams that should be found operating in ways that give them unfair advantage over others during sporting competition. Coaches and health personalities associated with the game should also act within the rules.


Archer, A. (2016). On sporting integrity. Sport, ethics and philosophy,10(2), 117-131.

Fransen, K., Vansteenkiste, M., Vande Broek, G., & Boen, F.(2018). The competence-supportive and competence-thwarting role of athlete leaders: An experimental test in a soccer context. PloS one, 13(7),e0200480.

Gardiner, S. and Parry, J and Robinson, SJ (2016) “Integrity and the corruption debate in sport:where is the integrity?  European Sport Management Quarterly,17 (1).  ISSN 1618-4742 DOI:

Gülfem Sezen-Balçıkanlı (2014). Fair Play in  Professional Sports:  Sportspersonship Orientations of Futsal Players, Fair Play. Revista de Filosofía, Ética y De-recho del Deporte, vol. 2 n.1, 33-49

Vargas-Mendoza, N., Fregoso-Aguilar, T., Madrigal-Santillán, E., Morales-González, Á., & Morales-González, J. A. (2018). Ethical concerns in sport: when the will to win exceed the spirit of sport. Behavioral Sciences, 8(9), 78.

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