Intelligence-led Policing Law

Criminal Justice

Intelligence-led Policing Law

Intelligence led Policing Law

            The advent of the digital age has led to the widespread number of relationships that are built based on social networks.  The relationships that are based on the social networks vary from family relationships, digital commerce transactions, interstate relationships, and the relationship with the criminal justice system.  Relational data can be derived from the contacts and connections in the digital platform.  Intelligence-led policing law uses data derived from social networks such as relational data as well as big data in mapping up crime scenes and eventually nabbing serial criminals.

             Relational data is used in establishing the social connections that an individual have. For instance data indicating that an individual is affiliated to a group that has been termed as criminal group in the organization may led to the suspicion of their activity.  The social networks helps in establishing what additional activity that the individuals involved in certain groups may be engaged in that is illegal.  The intelligence led policing law is enshrined in the social network analysis (SNA). It does investigate on suspicious individuals starting with the nodelist (Bachman, , and Schutt, 2019). The nodelist is a single data item, which may be an individual. The new law investigates on the nodelist as a single entity on the basis of all their activities and relation with the criminal justice system. SNA additionally investigates the relationship between the nodelists in determination of any existing association.  Through the use of special software, the numerous networks that emerge from a single nodelist are generated.

Crime Mapping

             Crime mapping in criminal justice system can be used in enhancing of the intelligence led policing.  Crime mapping entails the use of the geographic information system (GIS) to conduct the analysis of crime issues and other police related problems (Bachman, and Schutt, 2019). There are three fundamental issues addressed in the criminal mapping. Firstly, the crime mapping avails the visual and statistical analysis of spatial analysis of criminal events and other related events.  Secondly, crime mapping enables the linkage of data to other data sources. For instance, the data may be linked to the census information or school information to enable the criminal justice office to establish the existing relationships among the individuals suspected of committing criminal activities.   Lastly, criminal mapping enables the various law enforcing officers to have maps that visually presents the analysis results.

            Intelligence led policing law uses the crime mapping technology in the development of crime hot spots in the urban areas.  Hotspots are geospatially located areas where the frequency of a crime being committed is higher than in the other locations.  The information is important in the criminal justice system as it helps in the identification of areas where there is need for more resource allocation in curbing the criminal activities(Bachman, , and Schutt, 2019). The hotspots can be either individual blocks, a couple of blocks or a specific address denoting someone’s residence.  The crime mapping data is ideal as it enables the criminologists to choose the most urgent course of action in combating crime.  It helps in enlightenment of the reason behind crime happening in one specific location.  For instance, the presence of tourists on a particular area could be closely connected to the scenic views on that particular environment.

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             In crime mapping activities, different symbols may be used in understanding the  crime hotspots in the visual presentation of the data on a particular platform.  A single dot may be representative of the exact scene where the criminal activity took place. Crime site B and C are indicative where the criminal activity is yet to occur while the representation of gradient B is indicative that the crime occurred within the site. As illustrated in the figure below;

Hotspots identification through crime mapping

Figure 1.0 Hotspots identification through crime mapping

Big Data

            Big Data is an additional component used in intelligence led crime mapping.  Big data refers to the huge amount of databases whose information set keeps on changing and is useful in the extraction of meaningful information.  Big Data often contains information in computer readable format that explains the patterns, trends and existing relationship between variables.  The information in the big data is mostly available to all persons. Intelligence and law enforcement agencies use the big data in improving the efficiency of the justice related systems.  For instance, in establishing the phenomenon of mass shootings in the American schools, the big data will offer insight to the various researches undertaken on the topic. It would also describe the frequency of the attacks that may help in mapping out the criminal hotspots. The prediction of the scenes where the crime is likely to occur helps in understanding the resources to be deployed to a specific location.  It does help in the crime prevention measures such as allocating police officers to guard institutions or evacuating students in the crime prone locations.

             Confidentiality is a huge matter while using the big data for intelligence led policing. All manner of information regarding the identities of the subjects should be removed. In accessing the archived information, one should seek an understanding on the methodology used in eliminating personal information. For instance, the entry of information involving school children may involve the concealing of the identity of the subjects through alteration of the information presented there in.  Other platforms such as ICPRS allow the criminal investigators to access information only after they have agreed to the terms and conditions availed in their site.  The gathering of information on the big data helps in the prevention of criminal activities in the large scale measure.  Information acquired from the large data enables the crime control measures as well as screening for possible terrorist related activities.

Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Intelligence led Policing

             The intelligence led policing law seems like a technology led innovation that would help in simplifying the criminal justice system in curbing and prevention of criminal activities. There lacks empirical evidence to provide a backup of intelligence led policing activities. Therefore I shall evaluate the intelligence policies on a case to case basis to discover ways which were used by the criminal justice system in either identification of the crime related patterns, identification of crime hotspots and the individual perpetrators of crime.

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             To analyze the social network analysis component in the big data analysis I choose to analyze the case of 11/9 terror attack in USA.  The case study indicates that 19 members of the Al-Qaeda terror movement hijacked a plane and crush landed in four target spots in USA killing the plane occupants and many other inhabitants of the target location. Earlier on, Zacarias Moussaoui, a French citizen of Moroccan descent, was arrested after he requested for information on how to fly a 747. The SNA analysis indicated that he was connected to the terrorist movement that was planning to attack on the following month. Therefore, he was charged with conspiracy to commit terrorism in addition to much other illegal action. The case is illustrative of the effectiveness of the intelligence led policing as a means of dealing with issues in criminal justice system.

            The crime mapping technique helps in identification of crime hotspots.  The Case Study entails the Social Disorganization in Chicago Schools. The case presented a view where the  delinquency in the Chicago schools was on the rise. Crime mapping led to the identification of the concentric circles of Chicago that spread out to the suburbs from the city’s centre. The identification led to the knowledge that children who are disadvantaged in the society in the manner of the social, economic and financial backgrounds are most likely to be found in social disorganization related crimes. Thus, criminal justice system understands that the empowerment of the communities would reduce the crime patterns.

             The Big data helps in acquisition of information on specific criminal activities.  The case study involves predicting Recidivism with Big Data. The big data contains thousands of cases on the perpetrators of domestic violence.   Seven measures such as the behavioral history of the perpetrator, including such things as prior nonfamily assaults, arrests, or criminal convictions; prior family violence assaults, threats, or arrests; prior violations of protection orders; the frequency of family violence in the previous six months; and the escalation of family violence in the past six months as a measure of possible reoccurrence of the Recidivism in a new family. The different case studies indicate that intelligence led policing law is efficient in the operations in criminal justice system.


Bachman, D, R , and Schutt, R,K (2019) The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice. SAGE Publications

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